Sunday, February 23, 2020


HOW WAS THE TRIPARTITE FINANCIAL SYSTEM CREATED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM AND IT'S ROLE IF ANY IN THE CREDIT CRUNCH (BUSINESS AND LAW SUBJECTS) - Essay Example In fact it is found that the credit crisis is actually the result of poor regulatory process of these countries’ financial systems. This research is all about the Tripartite Financial System which was developed in UK in 1997. Prior to the period of recent financial crisis, it was apparently seemed that the system is quite effective in maintaining the stability in the UK financial system. However once the credit crisis started the actual effectiveness of the tripartite system came out. This research is started with a proper plan. A specific research statement is developed. Aims and objectives of the research are then properly identified. Precise research strategy and philosophy have been followed throughout the research. Data are collected in the pre-defined ways. A well structured literature review includes the detailed description of the topic. Finally the research ends with a proper conclusion. This research mainly focuses on the Tripartite Financial System and its role in the recent credit crunch in UK. The specific research statement is â€Å"how tripartite financial system was created in UK and its part in credit crunch†. The major aim and objective of this research is to identify all those processes and incidents that led to the formation of tripartite financial system. Furthermore the research also aims to find out the significance of this system in the recent credit crisis situation in United Kingdom. Each and every research is based on certain philosophy. In fact researches can be categorized into different types according to their philosophy. There are mainly two philosophical paradigm – phenomenological and positivist. In the first type of research, world is considered as an external object. Furthermore he/she should be independent. Most importantly in this type of research focus should be on facts. Furthermore the researcher should also focus on

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Portfolio in Islamic Commercial Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Portfolio in Islamic Commercial Law - Essay Example Meanwhile the second essay discusses how Islamic economic and finance can be the best alternative solution of ‘Responsible Capitalism’ from Islamic perspective. Relation between Islamic commercial law and political will of the state This section describes the relation between Islamic commercial law and political will of the state. It presents the development Islamic commercial law is inter-related with political will of the state. The notion is discussed by presenting a case study in the development of Islamic commercial law from early development until recent. In this case Southeast Asia will be used as a case study. The Sharia is made up of the ‘legal’ statements of the Koran and the Customs of the clairvoyant. Fiqh is an academic study, and juristic understanding of those sources. It is often presented as an ‘Islamic jurisprudence’. The word Sharia also entails these understanding. 1 The ideas are normally presented as different, although the limits connecting them are not completely presented. Muslim educators accurately criticise the expression ‘Islamic law’ for its malfunction to differentiate between phenomena within the society.2 The Sharia should be clearly distinguished from the territory law of Muslim- preponderance jurisdictions. Some justification processes do have stipulation in their statute, that the Sharia is the most important foundation of law. 3 Some have produced statutes founded on the Sharia, though; this is diverse from the Sharia essence the law. In the first situation, it is not more than the foundation, and in the subsequent, one of its indispensable attributes, its eventual influence, has been distorted, from Allah to the status. One exemption is Saudi Arabia, where Sharia is the law, other than this there are enhancement by frequent ‘regulations’ produced by the authority.1Sharia is an Arabic expression used to label Islamic by law. It initially referred to the trail p acked down by camels to a wet stream foundation, and the commonly used Arabic expression al-Sharia al-islamiyah could be turned into Islamic language. In the situation of Islamic rule, the technique is one that directs the virtuous advocate to ecstasy in life after death. The Sharia is not considered a sacred law by good quality of the area under discussion matters concerned, for these assortment far further than the ball of spiritual concerns firmly communication and lengthen to the humdrum affairs of on a daily basis.4 To a certain extent, its spiritual temperament is as a result of the Muslim principle that it emanates from exquisitely stimulated sources and represent God’s map for the appropriate grouping of all human being actions. Even though, Muslims have the same opinion that they are in touch by the Sharia law. The understandings of its necessities have been differentiated in the past depending on sectarian and school divided sections and, in contemporary times, also depending on the different notions of how the Sharia law is applicable to changed state of affairs of modern societies.5 The explanations of the necessities of Sharia law are controlled in the fiqh. In a universal intelligence, fiqh implies â€Å"acquaintance† or â€Å"knowledge,† except it is also second-hand in a more exact intelligence of Islamic law making process. Sharia

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Software Reuse Essay Example for Free

Software Reuse Essay Abstract Effective reuse of software products is reportedly increasing productivity, saving time, and reducing cost of software development. Historically, software reuse focused on repackaging and reapplying of code modules, data structures or entire applications in the new software projects (Prieto-Diaz 1994). Recently, however, it has been acknowledgedas beneficial to redeploy software components across the entire development life-cycle, starting with domain modelling and requirements specification, through software design, coding and testing, to maintenance and operation. There were also attempts to reuse aspects of project organisation and methodology, development processes, and communication structures. However, as the concept of reusing software components is very clear at the code level (whether in source or binary form), the very same concept becomes more fuzzy and difficult to grasp when discussed in the context of reusing specifications and designs (whether in textual or diagrammatical form), or quite incomprehensible when applied to software informal requirements, domain knowledge or human skills and expertise (expressed in natural language, knowledge representation formalism, or existing only in humans). This problem of dealing with reusable software artefacts resulting from the earliest stages of software development, in particular requirements specifications, attracted our particular interest in the reusability technology. Our work is motivated primarily by the possibility of improving the process of requirements elicitation by methodical reuse of software specifications and their components with the aid of information extracted from user informal requirements documents. The problems and issues that we aim to investigate in this research are best illustrated by the following statement outlining current needs and the goals for the future research in requirements reuse: †¢ More research is needed on the advantages and the necessary methods for requirements reuse. For example, what are requirements components’, what makes them reusable, how can we store and retrieve them, and how do we write a requirements specification that gives us the highest probability of creating or reusing existing requirements components? (Hsia, Davis et al. 1993). Definitions To address the issues advanced by Hsia, Davis and Kung, and to avoid any confusion farther in this paper, we need to clearly define some major concepts of software reuse, reusability, reusable artefacts, their possible forms, reusability methods, their major motivators and inhibitors, etc. Hence, we adopt our definitions from Prieto-Diaz (Prieto-Diaz 1989) as follows :-†¢ reuse is the use of previously acquired concepts or objects in a new situation, it involves encoding development information at different levels of abstraction, storing this representation for future reference, matching of new and old situations, duplication of already developed objects and actions, and their adaptation to suit new requirements; †¢ reuse is the use of previously acquired concepts or objects in a new situation, it involves encoding development information at different levels of abstraction, storing his representation for future reference, matching of new and old situations, duplication of already developed objects and actions, and their adaptation to suit new requirements; †¢ reusability is a measure of the ease with which one can use those previous concepts or objects in the new situations. Reuse Artefacts The object of reusability, reusable artefact , can be any information which a developer may need in the process of creating software (Freeman 1983), this includes any of the following software components :- †¢ code fragments, which come in a form of source code, PDL, or various charts; †¢ logical program structures , such as modules, interfaces, or data structures; †¢ functional structures , e.g. specifications of functions and their collections; †¢ domain knowledge , i.e. scientific laws, models of knowledge domains; †¢ knowledge of development process , in a form of life-cycle models; †¢ environment-level information, e.g. experiential data or users feedback; †¢ artefact transformation during development process (Basili 1990); etc. A controlled collection of reuse artefacts constitutes a reuse library. Such libraries must contain not only reusable components but are also expected to provide certain types of services to their users (Wegner 1989), e.g. storage, searching, inspecting and retrieval of artefacts from different application domains, and of varying granularity and abstraction, loading, linking and invoking of stored artefacts, specifying artefact relationships, etc. The major problems in the utilisation of such reuse libraries are in determining appropriate artefact classification schemes and in the selection of methods to effectively and efficiently search the library. To bypass the problems with reuse libraries, the use of specialised domain-specific languages was proposed as an alternative. Such languages use strict syntax and semantics defined in terms of an application domain and its reusable artefacts. While enforcing notational conformance with a predetermined syntax and semantics, the domain-specific languages restrict the number of possible classification and search mechanisms used in the process of composing a problem solution, e.g. as in DRACO (Neighbors 1989) or GIST (Feather 1989). Artefact Characteristics Certain classes of software artefacts have been identified as eminently suitable to become part of a reuse library and be, subsequently, utilised as reusable software resources. Such artefacts usually share a number of characteristics, deemed to actively promote reusability (Biggerstaff and Richter 1989; Matsumoto 1989; McClure 1989), those artefact are perceived to be :-†¢ expressive, i.e. they are of general utility and of adequate level of abstraction, so that they could be used in many different contexts, and be applicable to variety of problem areas; †¢ definite, i.e. they are constructed and documented with a clarity of purpose, their capabilities and limitations are easily identifiable, interfaces, required resources, external dependencies and operational environments are specified, and all other requirements are explicit and well defined; †¢ transferable , i.e. it is possible to easily transfer an artefact to a different environment or problem domain, this usually means that it is self-contained, with few dependencies on implementation-related concepts, it is abstract and well parametrised; †¢ additive, i.e. it should be possible to seamlessly compose existing artefacts into new products or other reusable components, without the need for massive software modifications or causing adverse side effects; †¢ formal , reusable artefacts should, at least at some level of abstraction, be described using a formal or semi-formal notation, such an approach provides means to formally verify an artefact correctness, it enables to predict violation of integrity constraints during artefact composition, or to assess the level of completeness for a product constructed of reusable parts; †¢ machine representable, those of the artefacts which can be described in terms of computationally determined attribute values, which can easily be decomposed into machine representable parts, which can be accessed, analysed, manipulated and possibly modified by computer-based processes, have a clear potential for becoming part of a flexible reuse library; those artefacts can be easily searched for, retrieved, interpreted, altered and finally integrated into larger system; †¢ self-contained , reusable artefacts which embody a single idea are easier to understand, they have less dependencies on external factors, whether environmental or implementational, they have interfaces which are simple to use, they are easier to extend, adapt and maintain; †¢ language independent, no implementation language details should be embedded in reusable artefacts, this also means that most useable artefacts are those which are described in terms of a specification or design formalism, or those low level solutions which could be used from variety of programming languages on a given implementation platform, either by appropriate macro processors or link editors; †¢ able to represent data and procedures , i.e. reusable artefacts should be able to encapsulate both their data structures and logic, down to a fine grain of detail, such an approach increases artefact cohesion and reduces the possibility of artefact coupling by common data passed via arguments or global variables; †¢ verifiable , as any other software components, reusable artefacts should be easy to test by their maintainers, and, what is even of a greater importance, by their users who embed reusable components into their own systems, and who must have the capability to monitor the components computational context and their interfaces; †¢ simple , minimum and explicit artefact interfaces will encourage developers to use artefacts, simple and easy to understand artefacts can also be easily modified by developers to suit new applications; and †¢ easily changeable, certain type of problems will require artefacts to be adopted to the new specifications, such changes should be localised to the artefact and require minimum of side effects. Reuse in Software Life-Cycle Computer software can be systematically reused across the entire development life-cycle, i.e. domain analysis, requirements specification, design and implementation, it has its place even in the post-delivery stages of development, e.g. its continuing quality assessment or software maintenance. Implementation. Early experience with software reuse was limited to reuse of program code in source and binary form. A great emphasis was put on development of programming languages which could support various methods of clustering, packaging, modularisation, parametrisation and sharing of data and code via data types and code blocks (ALGOL), named common blocks (FORTRAN), parametric functions and macros (FORTRAN and LISP), copy libraries (COBOL), information hiding (PASCAL), modules (SIMULA and MODULA), generic packages (ADA), objects and classes (SMALLTALK and C++), etc. The idea of code sharing was further supported by various operating system utilities which allowed independent program compilation, creation of relocatable libraries or link editing (Reed 1983). In those early days, no serious effort on a commercial scale was undertaken to reuse the early life-cycle artefacts, i.e. designs, specifications, requirements or enterprise models. This situation was caused by :- †¢ the lack of awareness of potential benefits that could be gained from reusing more abstract software artefacts; †¢ unavailability of commercial methodologies embracing software reuse at their centre-point; †¢ informal nature of early specification and design documents; and †¢ shortage of tools capable to represent specifications and designs in a computer-processable form. At the same time, †¢ the construction of libraries was known to improve software development productivity, and was practiced in nearly every commercial organisation; †¢ program code was written according to a formal grammar and it adhered to established semantic rules; and †¢ the construction of code libraries was supported by editors, compilers, loaders and linkers, which could be freely customised to accommodate various reuse tasks. Design. Today’s development approaches, such as object-oriented methods (Graham 1994) or rapid application development (Martin 1991), vigorously advocate reusing software artefacts at the earliest possible stage of the software life-cycle. Program design methods are now capable of utilising well-defined diagrammatic notations, which allow production of documents which are simpler and more legible than code, which clearly exhibit their conceptual contents, which are well structured and modular, and which allow dealing with problem complexity at various levels of abstraction and granularity. With the advent of CASE tools (McClure 1989) the contemporary design techniques are also supported by specialised software environments capable of capturing design ideas in a form leaning towards further processing by computer-based reuse tools. Today, it is also commonly perceived that reuse of software designs, as opposed to code reuse, is more economic, and cognitively a much more intuiti ve process. Requirements Specification. While application of reuse techniques to software design has visible advantages over code reuse, some researchers (Matsumoto 1989) claim further increases in the scope of software reusability when given opportunity to reuse modules at higher levels of abstraction, i.e. software specifications and requirements. Others support this claim, voicing the need to reuse large-scale artefacts going beyond design components and including entire design frameworks and domain resources (Li 1993). Bubenko et. al. (Bubenko, Rolland et al. 1994) further propose to combine design and reuse libraries to accommodate development processes capable of reusing conceptual schemas to support the process of requirements engineering. Such an approach provides users with the library of reusable components that could match their requirements, improves the quality of requirements specifications by making available well-defined conceptual components as early as requirements specification, and improves the productivity of the requirements engineering process by shortening the requirements formalisation effort (Castano and De Antonellis 1994). In the REBOOT system, Morel and Faget (Morel and Faget 1993) aim at extending this approach to the entire software life-cycle. Such advances in requirements and specification reuse were in part facilitated by :- †¢ Development of the new types of programming languages, such as PROLOG or EIFFEL, which combine elements of program specification and design (via logic and class specification) at the level of code, such an approach promotes interpretation and reuse of abstract program descriptions throughout the life-cycle; †¢ dissemination of prototyping tools and visual programming environments capable of graphic representation of user requirements and the subsequent generation of code or code skeletons (Vonk 1989; Ambler and Burnett 1990), facilitating effective composition of programs of domain-specific, visual, reuse components; †¢ introduction of formal requirements and specification languages, such as RML (Greenspan, Mylopoulos et al. 1994), Z (Spivey 1989), VDM (Woodman and Heal 1993) or LARCH (Guttag and Horning 1993), permitting representation, structuring, verification, and reuse of specification components; †¢ object-oriented technologies integrating various diagrammatic techniques into a single methodology, e.g. Information Engineering (Martin 1993), or unifying elements of conceptual modelling, program specification and design into one consistent notation, e.g. Object-Oriented Conceptual Modelling (Dillon and Tan 1993), such object-oriented development methods allow creation of abstract conceptual schemata which can be readily adapted by instantiation and inheritance to new problem solutions; †¢ development of full-text databases utilising efficient information retrieval methods (Salton 1989), being introduced as a repository for storing, classification and subsequent retrieval of design and specification texts (Frakes and Nejmeh 1988; Maarek, Berry et al. 1991; Fugini and Faustle 1993); and finally †¢ application of knowledge-based techniques and intelligent software development assistants in requirements acquisition and specification (Lowry and Duran 1989); Domain Analysis. The final frontier for software reuse in the development life-cycle is a thorough analysis of a given problem domain. This approach is grounded on the belief that in a real-life situation reusability is not a universal property of program code or processed information but it rather depends on a context of the problem and its solution, which themselves are relatively cohesive and stable (Arango and Prieto-Diaz 1991). The main aim of domain analysis is the construction of a domain model of which components could be reused in solving variety of problems. Such a model will customarily include definition of concepts used in the specification of problems and software systems, definition of typical design decisions, alternatives, trade-offs and justifications, and software implementation plans. Such a model may take variety of different forms, to include (cf. Figure 1) :- †¢ definitional model, which provides knowledge taxonomies and actonomies describing domain concepts, their structure, semantics, and relationships between them; †¢ knowledge representation model, giving domain semantics and explanation facilities; †¢ domain-specific languages , which when expressed as formal grammars and supported by parsers may provide direct translation of specifications into executable code; †¢ instructional models , indicating the methods of constructing working systems in a given domain, such methods may be described by standards, guidelines, templates, or interface definitions; †¢ functional models, describing how systems work, using representations such as data flow diagrams or program description languages; †¢ structural models, provide means to define architecture of domain systems; etc. In the process of constructing a domain model, the common knowledge from related systems is generalised, objects and operations common to all systems in a given domain are identified, and a model is defined to describe their inter-relationships. The main problem with this process is that knowledge sources for domain modelling (as found in technical literature, existing implementations, customer surveys, expert advice or current and future requirements) are frequently verbose and informal. Thus, special techniques and tools are needed to deal with it, e.g. knowledge acquisition tools, entity-relationship modelling tools, object-oriented methods, semantic clustering tools, CASE and parsing tools (Agresti and McGarry 1988). Reuse Process. In this work, we will view the process of software reuse as comprising three stages of artefact processing (cf. Figure 2), i.e. their analysis, organisation and synthesis. †¢ Artefact analysis starts with identification of artefacts in existing software products (Ning, Engberts et al. 1994) or in a currently analysed domain (Arango and Prieto-Diaz 1991), this is followed by their understanding and representation in a suitable formalism to reflect their function and semantics, with possible generalisation to widen the scope of their future applications. †¢ Artefact organisation includes classification and storage of artefacts in an appropriate software repository, the subsequent repository search and artefacts retrieval whenever they are needed in the reuse process. †¢ Artefact synthesis consists of artefact selection from a number of retrieved candidate artefacts, their adaptation to suit the new application, and their integration into a completely new software product. The tasks undertaken in the three stages of artefact processing are also frequently discussed from the perspective of development-for-reuse and development-by-reuse (Bubenko, Rolland et al. 1994). †¢ Development-for-reuse is emphasising the construction of the reuse library, involving the identification, understanding , generalisation , and the subsequent classification and storage of artefacts for later reuse. †¢ Development-by-reuse is concerned with the effective utilisation of the reuse library to support new software development, it involves searching, retrieval , selection , adaptation, and integration of artefacts into the software system under construction. As reuse is quite independent of any particular development process model, it, thus, could be embedded into a variety of methodologies, to include waterfall model (Hall and Boldyreff 1991), rapid prototyping (Martin 1991), object-oriented design (Meyer 1987),etc. While the inclusion of reuse into a development cycle is of a significant benefit to the entire process, at the same time it may complicate the development process (e.g. see Figure 3). Also, reuse tasks may significantly overlap with those performed in other development phases, e.g. software integration or maintenance. The separation of concerns lead some researchers (Hall and Boldyreff 1991) into pointing out that reuse must occur across different projects or problem areas, as opposed to those tasks which aim at the change, improvement or refinement of software undertaken within a single project which should not be regarded as reuse, e.g. †¢ software porting , which only aims at adopting existing software product to different hardware or operating system environments; †¢ software maintenance , which strives to correct software erroneous behaviour or to alter the existing program to suit changing requirements; and †¢ software reconfiguration, which provides a method of customising software to be used with different hardware components or making only a subset of its facilities available to the user. Assessing the Reuse Process and its Goals The value of software reuse cannot be gauged in simple, unambiguous, congruous and canonical fashion. One of the reasons for this difficulty lies in the fact that there is a variety of reusable artefact types and the methods and techniques for their creation, manipulation and maintenance. Another reason can be set in inadequacy of measuring tools to assess the reuse benefit or its hindrance, as it can be measured using variety of incompatible metrics, some of which are based on economic, some on technical, then again others on social or cognitive principles. Finally, it is the numerous software stakeholders who are not likely to agree on the common goals of the reuse process itself, as they will all have distinct and opposing development goals. The contention on thee success or failure of reuse approaches is best reflected in the myths, biases and preconceptions of software developers and management, this section will, thus, summarise such opinions as they are reported in the software engineering literature. Reuse benefits. Adopting reuse-based software development process attracts a number of well recognised economic and psychological benefits to both the end-users and developers (Tracz 1988b; Hemmann 1992). These include the following. †¢ Savings in costs and time. As a developer uses already pre-defined components, hence, the activities associated with components specification, design and implementation are now replaced with finding components, their adaptation to suit new requirements, and their integration. Experience shows (also from other fields, like electronic engineering) that the latter set of activities takes less times and therefore costs less. It should be noted, though, that development of components for reuse will certainly attract additional effort, time and cost. This costs, however, can be offset by savings in a number of different software projects. †¢ Increase in productivity. A set of reusable artefacts can frequently be viewed as a high-level language of concepts drawn from a given problem domain. Hence, a developer is given an opportunity to work with more abstract notions related directly to the problem at hand and to ignore low-level, implementation details. It has been shown that working at a higher level of abstraction leads to an increase in development productivity. †¢ Increase in reliability. Reuse library can be viewed as a software product itself, therefore, its development follows a normal cycle of requirements specification, design, implementation, testing, documentation and maintenance. By the very assumption, the user base and a life-span of reuse artefacts is much greater than that of any individual product, thus, the reliability of such artefact is also increased. This also leads to an improved reliability of systems built of reusable components rather than of those built entirely from scratch. †¢ Increase in ease of maintenance. Systems constructed of reusable parts are usually simpler, smaller, and more abstract. Their design is closer to the problem domain and their reliability is greater. This of course has an very positive impact on the quality of such systems maintenance. †¢ Improvement in documentation and testing. Reusable components are normally accompanied by high quality documentation and by previously developed tests plans and cases. Whenever a new system is created by simple selection and altering of such components, then, their documentation and tests will have to be much easier to develop as well. †¢ High speed and low cost replacement of aging systems. As the reuse-based systems share a very large collection of program logic via the reuse library, thus, they are significantly less complex and much smaller in size than those developed from scratch. Such systems will therefore need less effort during porting or adaptation to new hardware and software environments. It should also be noted that it would normally be the reusable components of the system that is technology intensive, and thus, very expensive to develop, e.g. graphical user interfaces, databases, communications, device control, etc. Sharing that cost across several systems would certainly reduce it when a global replacement of computing resources is called for. Reuse drawbacks. At the same time, in practice, radical gains in productivity and quality cannot be achieved due to some preconceptions held by developers and their management (Tracz 1988b; Hemmann 1992). The claims commonly put forward by programmers include :- †¢ reusing code, as compared with development of entirely new systems, is boring; †¢ locally developed code is better than that developed elsewhere (NIH factor); †¢ it is easier to rewrite complex programs from scratch rather than to maintain it; †¢ there are no tools to assist programmers in finding reusable artefacts; †¢ in majority of cases, developed programs are too specialised for reuse; †¢ adopted software development methodology does not support software reuse; †¢ reuse is often ad-hoc and is unplanned; †¢ there is no formal training in reusing code and designs effectively; †¢ useful reusable artefacts are not supported on the preferred development platform; †¢ the reuse process is too slow; †¢ interfaces of reusable artefacts are too awkward to use; †¢ code with reusable components is often too big or too inefficient; †¢ programs built of reusable components are not readily transportable; †¢ reusable components do not conform to adopted standards; †¢ reuse techniques do not scale up to large software projects; †¢ there are no incentives to reuse software. Meanwhile, management also raises objections based on the following arguments :- †¢ it takes too much effort and time to introduce reuse in workplace; †¢ perceived productivity gains will result in cuts to the project man-power; †¢ customers may expect reusable artefacts to be delivered with their product; †¢ it may be difficult to prevent plagiarism of reusable artefacts; †¢ reuse of code may lead to legal responsibility in case of software failure; †¢ the cost of maintaining reusable libraries is prohibitive; †¢ management is not trained in software development methods with reuse; †¢ there is no coordination between software project partners to introduce reuse. Such problems of perception often result from irrational, nevertheless, deeply rooted myths about reusability and the reuse process. A selection of such myths (cf. Table 1) were reported and subsequently demistified by Tracz (1988a). Reuse motivators. While the common prejudice, miconceptions and outright myths among developers and management prevent companies to effectively introduce reuse into their mainstream development, Frakes and Fox (1995) show in their survey that only few factors listed above have any real impact on the success or failure of software reuse, i.e. †¢ the type of application domain althought the reasons for this phenomenon are not known, it seems that certain types of industries show significantly higher levels of reuse (e.g. telecommunication companies) in certain areas of the life-cycle than others (e.g. aerospace industries); †¢ perceived economic feasibility in those organisations where management convinced its software developers that reuse is desirable and economically viable had a much higher success in the introduction of reuse into those organisations; †¢ high quality and functional relevance of reuse assets increases the likelihood of the assets to be reused; †¢ common software process although developers themselves do not regard a common software process as promoting reuse, there is a strong correlation between the gains in the process maturity and the gains in the level of software reuse; and finally, †¢ reuse education education about reuse, both in school and at work, improves reuse and is a necessary part of a reuse program, however, since the issues of software reuse are rarely discussed in the academic curriculum, it is necessary for management to bear the responsibility to provide reuse-specific training to its employees. The same study also showed that other factors, widely perceived as reuse motivators or inhibitors, have only a minimal effect on the reuse process, e.g. †¢ use of specific programming languages and paradigms it is often perceived that structured, modular, object-oriented, or high-level languages improve the prospects of successful software reuse, the collected statistics, however, show no such correlation; †¢ utilisation of software support environments and CASE although development tools are frequently marketted as greatly enhancing software reusability, some studies show that the current employed CASE tools are not particularly effective in promoting reuse of life-cycle objects across projects in an organisation; †¢ employment of staff experienced in software engineering it seems to be evident that experienced software development practitioners are potentially better reusers than those who have no formal training in software engineering, however contrary to this belief, it can be shown that experience and knowledge of software development principles is not a substitute for training in methods and techniques specific to reuse activities; †¢ provision of recognition rewards as an incentive to promote reuse practices in the organisation it is likely that only monetary rewards are a more effective motivator for implementing reuse practices; †¢ existence of perceived legal impediments to the utilisation of reusable software as majority of reuse efforts concentrates on the in-house development of reusable artefacts, thus, the legal issues are of less concern; †¢ existence of reuse repositories many organisations consider such repositories as central to their reuse efforts, practice, however, shows that those organisations which do not use sophisticated computer-aided tools assisting the classification and retrieval of software artefacts achieve similar levels of reuse as those who are active proponents and users of such automated repositories; †¢ the size of an organisation conducting a software development project the project or development team size is often used as an argument against the introduction of a formal reuse process, small companies believe the narrow scope of their application domain will limit the potential benefit of reuse, while the big companies fear the necessary investment of resources and money to properly implement systematic reuse, the apprehension in both of these cases in unwarranted and the likelyhood of a success or failure of reuse efforts is independent of the company or project size; †¢ considerations of software and process quality majority of surveyed developers had generally positive experience in reusing various software assets developed outside their home companies, overall, the quality concerns had little impact on the level of software reuse, the situation would probably be very different if the quality of reused assets were to deteriorate; †¢ reuse measurements in majority of companies measurement of reuse levels, software quality, and software productivity are not done, however, those organisation which measure software reusability are not getting any significant higher reuse levels than those which fail to monitor their successes or failures in reusing software artefacts, thus in practice, measuring software reuse has very little effect on the whole of the reuse process. Finally, Krueger (1989) provides four tenets of the successful software reuse, the tenets based on the technical and cognitive factors which he believes will ultimately translate into variety of development goals to achieve an effective policy on software reusability, i.e. †¢ reuse must reduce the cognitive effort of software development; †¢ constructing systems of reusable components must be easier than to building them from scratch; †¢ finding reusable artefacts must be more efficient than building them; †¢ understanding artefacts is fundamental to their effective selection. Summary This paper defined the concepts of software reuse, reusability, reuse artefact and reuse library. It listed those attributes of software artefacts which increase a chance of them being reused, e.g. they have to be expressive, definite, transferable, additive, formal, machine representable, self-contained, language independent, able to represent data and procedures, verifiable, simple, and easily changeable. Then the paper gave an overview of major reuse efforts in the life-cycle, starting with coding and design, and then going through specification and requirements capture, and finally covering domain analysis and modelling. Two forms of reuse-based development were discussed, i.e. development-for-reuse, aiming at the construction of reuse library, and consisting of artefact identification, generalisation, classification and storage; and the second, development-by-reuse, aiming at the construction of a new software product with the use of reuse library, and including the tasks of searching for reusable artefacts, their understanding, adaptation to new requirements, and their integration into a new system. The stages of artefacts processing include their analysis, organisation and synthesis. Finally the paper analyses the benefits and the perceived disadvantages of software reusability, focusing in particular on the myths and misconceptions held by developers and their managers. Four preconditions for reusability success were given as reduction in cognitive complexity, ease of implementation, ability to understanding of artefact structure and function, and finally, economy of reuse. Bibliography Agresti, W. W. and F. E. McGarry (1988). The Minnowbrook Workshop on Software Reuse: A summary report. Software Reuse: Emerging Technology. W. Tracz. Washington, D.C., Computer Society Press: 33-40. Ambler, A. L. and M. M. Burnett (1990). Influence of visual technology on the evolution of language environments. Visual Programming Environments: Paradigms and Systems. P. G. Ephraim. Los Alamitos, California, IEEE Computer Society Press : 19-32. Arango, G. and R. Prieto-Diaz (1991). Part1: Introduction and Overview, Domain Analysis and Research Directions. Domain Analysis and Software Systems Modeling. P.-D. Ruben and A. Guillermo. Los Alamitos, California, IEEE Computer Society Press: 9-32. Basili, V. R. (1990). Viewing maintenance as reuse-oriented software development. IEEE Software : 19-25. Biggerstaff, T. J. and C. Richter (1989). Reusability framework, assessment, and directions. Software Reusability: Concepts and Models. J. B. Ted and J. P. Alan. New York, New York, ACM Addison Wesley Publishing Company. 1: 1-18. Bubenko, J., C. Rolland, et al. (1994). Facilitating Fuzzy to Formal requirements modelling. The First International Conference on Requirements Engineering, Colorado Springs, Colorado, IEEE Computer Society Press. Castano, S. and V. De Antonellis (1994). â€Å"The F3 Reuse Environment for Requirements Engineering.† ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes 19(3): 62-65. Dillon, T. S. and P. L. Tan (1993). Object-Oriented Conceptual Modeling. Sydney, Prentice-Hall. Feather, M. S. (1989). Reuse in the context of a transformation-based methodology. Software Reusability: Concepts and Models. J. B. Ted and J. P. Alan. New York, New York, ACM Addison Wesley Publishing Company. 1: 337-359. Frakes, W. B. and C. J. Fox (1995). Sixteen questions about software reuse. Communications of the ACM. 38: 75-87,112. Frakes, W. B. and B. A. Nejmeh (1988). An information system for software reuse. Tutorial on Software Reuse: Emerging Technology. W. Tracz. Washington, D.C., IEEE Computer Society Press : 142-151. Freeman, P. (1983). Reusable software engineering: concepts and research directions. Tutorial on Software Design Techniques. F. Peter and I. W. Anthony. Los Angeles, California, IEEE Computer Society Press: 63-76. Fugini, M. G. and S. Faustle (1993). Retrieval of reusable components in a development information system. Advances in Software Reuse: Selected Papers from the Second International Workshop on Software Reusability, Lucca, Italy, IEEE Computer Society Press. Graham, I. (1994). Object Oriented Methods. Wokingham, England, Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. Greenspan, S., J. Mylopoulos, et al. (1994). On formal requirements modeling languages: RML revisited. 16th International Conference on Software Engineering, Sorrento, Italy, IEEE Computer Society Press. Guttag, J. V. and J. J. Horning (1993). Larch: Languages and Tools for Formal Specifications. New York, Springer-Verlag. Hall, P. and C. Boldyreff (1991). Software reuse. Software Engineers Reference Book. A. M. John. Oxford, U.K., Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd : 41/1-12. Hemmann, T. (1992). Reuse in Software and Knowledge Engineering, , , German National Research Center for Computer Science (GDM), Artificial Intelligence Research Division. Hsia, P., A. Davis, et al. (1993). Status Report: Requirements Engineering. IEEE Software : 75-79. Krueger, C. W. (1989). Models of Reuse in Software Engineering, CMU-CS-89-188, , School of Computer Science , Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Benefits of Cholesterol to Brain Development Essay -- Biology

What do you think of when you hear the word cholesterol? It's pretty common to think that it makes you gain weight, it is bad in large quantities, and it is generally unhealthy. But a recent experiment has shown that although it can be bad in some ways, it is good for you in other ways. One of the most important parts of your body is your central nervous system (CNS). It includes your spinal cord and your brain, and it is run by cells called neurons. These neurons, with the help of synapses, send electrical signals throughout the body. So what do neurons and synapses have to do with cholesterol? If you do not have cholesterol during certain parts of your life cycle, you actually do not develop many synapses. Even those that do form are destined to be inefficient at transmitting signals to the brain and body. Who cares if you have a lot of efficient synapses? An easy comparison is between the CNS and a computer. The brain thriving off of a lot of synapses, a computer running much better with more RAM. Your computer still works if it does not have a lot of RAM, and it will do what you ask it to; however, if it does have a lot of RAM, it will do what you ask more efficiently and faster. Likewise, if you do not have many synapses, your brain and CNS will still work at a much lower level. If you do have a lot of synapses, everything will work faster. Your brain will send signals to the rest of your body efficiently so you can react faster, think faster, etc. This leads us into the article that you should be able to understand completely by the end of this web page. Before this discovery was made, scientists had no idea that cholesterol was responsible for these events. Follow along with us to an explanation of the previous ... ...a viable solution. Now that you know that your brain is all you have, there are some considerations to be made. Do you really want to smoke marijuana when you consider that being high means killing off neurons? What about that kegger next weekend? That kills brain cells too. More specific than the ties to drug and alcohol abuse, this article talks about the gray areas of life. The human body is an amazing machine. It is extremely adaptive, and it requires a lot of fuel to run. Avoid entirely wiping out a common substance from your diet without doing the proper research. Who knows, perhaps cutting that food from your meal might put you in deeper trouble than you thought possible. References "CNS Synaptogenesis Promoted by Glia-Derived Cholesterol." Science Magazine. 9 Nov 2001: 1354-1357. 3 Nov 2003 Benefits of Cholesterol to Brain Development Essay -- Biology What do you think of when you hear the word cholesterol? It's pretty common to think that it makes you gain weight, it is bad in large quantities, and it is generally unhealthy. But a recent experiment has shown that although it can be bad in some ways, it is good for you in other ways. One of the most important parts of your body is your central nervous system (CNS). It includes your spinal cord and your brain, and it is run by cells called neurons. These neurons, with the help of synapses, send electrical signals throughout the body. So what do neurons and synapses have to do with cholesterol? If you do not have cholesterol during certain parts of your life cycle, you actually do not develop many synapses. Even those that do form are destined to be inefficient at transmitting signals to the brain and body. Who cares if you have a lot of efficient synapses? An easy comparison is between the CNS and a computer. The brain thriving off of a lot of synapses, a computer running much better with more RAM. Your computer still works if it does not have a lot of RAM, and it will do what you ask it to; however, if it does have a lot of RAM, it will do what you ask more efficiently and faster. Likewise, if you do not have many synapses, your brain and CNS will still work at a much lower level. If you do have a lot of synapses, everything will work faster. Your brain will send signals to the rest of your body efficiently so you can react faster, think faster, etc. This leads us into the article that you should be able to understand completely by the end of this web page. Before this discovery was made, scientists had no idea that cholesterol was responsible for these events. Follow along with us to an explanation of the previous ... ...a viable solution. Now that you know that your brain is all you have, there are some considerations to be made. Do you really want to smoke marijuana when you consider that being high means killing off neurons? What about that kegger next weekend? That kills brain cells too. More specific than the ties to drug and alcohol abuse, this article talks about the gray areas of life. The human body is an amazing machine. It is extremely adaptive, and it requires a lot of fuel to run. Avoid entirely wiping out a common substance from your diet without doing the proper research. Who knows, perhaps cutting that food from your meal might put you in deeper trouble than you thought possible. References "CNS Synaptogenesis Promoted by Glia-Derived Cholesterol." Science Magazine. 9 Nov 2001: 1354-1357. 3 Nov 2003

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Class Participation Rate And Improving Students Knowledge Education Essay

Abstraction: The Task-based Teaching and Learning manner has been enjoyed a batch in nowadays English instruction procedure. Not merely because it has specified the purposes of both instruction and pupils ‘ acquisition, but besides during the procedure of making the ends, it will assist excite instructors ‘ inspiring abilities and pupils ‘ creativenesss, therefore to develop the involvement in larning and the province of analyzing to their best. However, there are assorted jobs happening in category instruction, of which standout and influential are the low category engagement rate and pupils ‘ low efficiency in geting the needed cognition. To happen out solutions to these jobs, the writer has studied different stuffs every bit good reflected from the learning experience ( instance analyze method ) , proposing that using concerted survey, or teamwork spirit into category instruction will be the most effectual. Cardinal words: co-op survey, Task-based English Teaching, engagement1. IntroductionIt is non easy to make better instruction ends when a category has encountered jobs like low engagement rate, intending that non all the pupils are interested in inquiring or replying inquiries and take parting in activities, merely because the activities are non fascinating at all. And the other job is pupils ‘ low efficiency in geting the needed cognition. There are many factors act uponing the quality of a category instruction. Owning better buildings of learning installations, like advanced multimedia, is far from adequate to do a category acquire its expected ends. As for this, many instructors and experts have been seeking to work out ways to advance pupils ‘ desire to cognize and willingness to make, for illustration, holding more out-of-classroom activities and puting up more advanced subjects to speak and research. But how to do the best of these is still left to research. By anal yzing old researches and making learning pattern in Deyang Foreign Language School, the writer believes concerted survey, which is besides called team-work should be more used in learning and educating. In the undermentioned portion of the thesis, the causes for these jobs mentioned supra will be explained. Following that, the construct of Cooperative Study and its positive relationship with Task-based Class Teaching will be introduced every bit good as how we can really use it into existent instruction. The research the writer has done in Deyang Foreign Language School will be discussed in the last portion.2. Review of Literature2.1 Theory of task-based English Class TeachingTask-based instruction is to get the hang the linguistic communication by utilizing linguistic communication in the activities instead than merely developing for linguistic communication accomplishments and cognition of the linguistic communication larning results. In learning activities, instructors should con centrate on specific communications and linguistic communication undertakings, design of specific and practical undertakings. Students are to finish the acquisition undertakings through look, communicating, dialogue, reading and other linguistic communication in the signifier of enquiry. Task-based instruction method is to absorb the advantages of the past formed of a assortment of learning methods, while it does non except other learning methods. It was first put frontward in the 1980s, emphasizing on â€Å" acquisition by making † in the linguistic communication learning method and communicative attack is the development of linguistic communication instruction in the universe. This has provided learning theoretical footing for the gradual debut of English instruction in China, foreign linguistic communication learning reform in China as a tendency. The characteristics of Task-based Teaching Method include concentrating on completing the undertakings alternatively of pull stringsing some kind of nonmeaningful linguistic communication signifier, and taking at raising pupils ‘ resounding and involvements by supplying interactions which are closely related to existent life and experience.2.2 Theory of Cooperative StudyConcerted survey ( or cooperative acquisition ) is an attack to forming schoolroom activities into academic and societal acquisition experiences. Students work in groups to finish undertakings jointly. Everyone succeeds when the group succeeds. There are 5 basic elements of concerted survey. They are Positive Interdependence, Individual Accountability, Face to Face Interactions, Social Skills, and Benefits. First, Positive Interdependence requires that group members feel connected to each other in the procedure of carry throughing the end. Second, Individual Accountability means that every group member is responsible for being able to show apprehension and comprehension of the erudite academic outlooks and societal ends. Third, Face to Face Interactions suggest that the group must take part by pass oning and discoursing the end. Fourth, Social Skills include listening, organic structure linguistic communication, sharing, accepting thoughts and differences, etc. These are the accomplishments needed prior to or being developed during the group work. And 5th, Benefits include higher ego esteem, achievement and keeping of academic information2.3 Co-relationships between task-based instruction and co-op surveyFrom a chart, we ca n see the co-relation between concerted survey and task-based instruction: ( chart 2.1 ) Undertakings Proper activities instructors Team ends Group activities pupils When all the instruction ends are assigned as group work, those proper activities are needed to be fulfilled by all the pupils with concerted spirit applied into the procedure and with the counsel of the instructors. The characteristics of concerted survey fit the steps taken to complete task-based instruction.3. Causes for jobsBefore really acquiring to cognize how Concerted Survey can be to the full applied into instruction, it is necessary to acquire to cognize the causes for those jobs ( low engagement rate and low efficiency in larning ) mentioned above. Why non all the pupils are willing to take part, and what are the obstructions for leveling up pupils ‘ efficiency in geting cognition? Bing non interested in the category is the ground why they do n't desire positively believing and speaking, which straight influence their quality of geting cognition. Maybe it is because of the stuffs are deadening, the manner the instructor Teachs is deadening, or it is their ain jobs. Students in in-between school are in the adolescent ages, during which many physical and psychological jobs will go on to them. Based on the instruction pattern done in Deyang Foreign Language, the writer has found out that there are chiefly three facets of influential factors listed out as follows: on the facet of pupils, on the facet of instructors, and on the facet of school.3.1 On the facet of pupilsY?ee?â„ ¢i [ Chai Lujing ] ( 2006 ) , who has wrote about how to using concerted spirit into proficient schools, says that, on the one manus, in-between school pupils are during their adolescent period clip, in which they are fighting for psychological independency. The incarnation of which is they tend to cut away the attaching emotions from parents and instructors. And therefore they need to construct other relationships as permutations either with the outside universe, such as societal relationship, or with their adolescent couples, like childhood buddies or schoolmates. Since a batch of in-between school pupils are populating on campus, it is an chance for them to set up new relationships with more people out of known relationships and recognize their life value through their ain attempts and enterprises. On the other manus, all those activities to be carried out in categories need the spirit of willingness to portion and header with others, but this is what the pupils presents are missing. What besides should be responsible for is the â€Å" one kid policy † . Bing the lone kid and the centre at place, they have been spoiled by their households. And their uneasiness has ever made them proud of themselves, lending to the turning unsighted recognition of themselves. This is why they are missing the consciousness and motives to get by with others. She has besides stated that the â€Å" merely kid † has a strong desire to assail, doing them violative and critic, more earnestly, doing them take no joy in doing friends with people they do n't wish but to avenge them therefore to protect themselves. All these indicate that these childs lack concerted spirit, doing them bear no apprehension, compassion and regard towards others. So it is non difficult to reason that this will be obstructions for them to set to the society and have a self-acceptance of one ego. Therefore, even there are activities and undertakings set in a Task-based Class, without pupils ‘ willingness and openness to offer to make, nil can be achieved. Consequently, the category engagement rate will non be every bit high as expected.3.2 On the facet of instructorsNot all the instructors are doing an lineation of a category intricately, for missing of clip or idea of nec essity. As we all know â€Å" jaming instruction and acquisition † has improbably existed in history and influenced our instruction for decennaries. The accent of consequence and classs has made instructors concentrate more on the consequences, whatever the procedure is. Making more exercising and flexing their caputs among the books are ever what a persevering pupil should be. Whenever there is a new category, pupils are burdened with a mass of new cognition, which should be gained by repeatedly reinforcement and examined through trials. Though the task-based instruction and larning method is been developing, the thought that merely repeat message and â€Å" jaming cognition † are difficult to acquire rid of. Teachers rarely do probes on each pupil ‘s personality. Therefore pupils ‘ likes and disfavors are normally heedlessly ignored, and their being asked about inquiries they are non interested in and non able to interrupt the tenseness of a serious categ ory, has decidedly influence pupils ‘ ardor in engagement. Because of deficiency of properly organized activities, which means it is the instructor who is speaking and cramming, a category is difficult to make the ends, harmoniously and pleasantly. And this will decidedly act upon pupil ‘s efficiency in deriving cognition.3.3 On the facet of schoolIn the construct of traditional instruction, it is more focussed on the person ‘s development and competence alternatively of a group ‘s. In in-between school, this has been reflected by prosecuting of high classs. The quality of a school is normally judged by its rate of pupils ‘ credence to a higher instruction. Since all the people are fighting to their ain personal success, the sharing of cognition and the joy of being working together have been ignored. Bing antsy and covetous of other people ‘s accomplishments, many pupils have become more self-acclaimed and self-closing, ne'er desiring to portions knowledge with others, ne'er desiring to interchange thoughts with others. But things have changed. The new demands of course of study claim quality instruction, taking at developing a pupil ‘s all-aspects abilities. And more specifically, many utile types of learning methods are demanded, like Task-based Class Teaching. As for a school itself, the failures of working on harmonious analyzing squads and societal patterns have influenced the most. Because it is frequently the fight are highlighted more than the concerted survey. Such as in a athleticss meeting, categories are consequently a group for a series of competitions. Another factor is the demand to do concerted spirit as an of import societal value to be popularized and educated has non been fulfilled4. Cases of using Cooperative Spirit into category instructionTo happen solutions to these jobs ( low engagement rate and low efficiency in larning ) , many instructors have been seeking to set as many activities as they c an in a category instruction, and utilize multimedia installations. But see this: if a category is full of activities which are merely to warm up the ambiance and the instructor is the prima function, can the category truly animate the pupils to take part? If the instructors have put all the information on a computing machine, voices are taped and descriptions are pictured, can they assist the pupils develop their advanced spirit to believe and to detect? And these defects are precisely many bookmans are reasoning approximately. As ?Y?c? ¤a?†  [ Ke Qunfan ] ( 2003 ) has written in â€Å" acquiring out of the new jaming instruction method † that to do a category vivid and unrecorded, many instructors have done excessively much, one-sidedly thought that more activities will be better. However, it so becomes â€Å" new jaming method † , which has merely occupies much clip of a category. â€Å" New criterions for English Curriculum † has claimed that â€Å" the development of a pupil † is the finish of learning. It is indispensable to do pupils the active functions of a category. Cooperative survey, inquiring for using concerted spirit, besides called the team-work spirit, into survey, has been approved and suggested by many bookmans. eâ„ ¢?a?Sa?Z [ Chen Jianhua ] ( 2004 ) has stated in thesis â€Å" A Small Talk on English Cooperative Study † that cooperative survey is one of the instruction patterns based on group work. Having the same ultimate end and being valued by accomplishment of a whole group, concerted survey can excite instruction and acquisition by to the full cooperation of each component. If taken into consideration, the demands of a task-based instruction method will be fulfilled. Collaborating can convey pupils ‘ action into drama, and organize the competitory every bit good as concerted ambiance between groups in categor y. During the procedure, face to confront interactions are established while each pupil will hold to transport a portion of duty. And the outlooks of doing conversations can be reached which is precisely what an English category is taking at, which is to do a pupil talk, think positively, and do linguistic communication a unrecorded tool to pass on.4.1 Teamwork illustrations in high school abroad.When people were interviewed why they had chosen to analyze abroad, they explained that it was because they could see the â€Å" free thought † or â€Å" free life † . Though this is sort of sarcastic about China ‘s instruction which has been traditionally concentrating on acquiring a good class, allowing entirely the deep cultural difference, American ‘s free method of instruction is worthy acquisition, for which is full of free thought, more significantly, inquiring for every bit much cooperation as possible in a category. Not merely in completing assignment but besides interactions between instructors and pupils, between cognition and pupils ‘ heads. What â€Å" free method of American instruction † has impressed the writer most were the personal experiences of analyzing in Plattsburgh College in State University of New York. Though it ‘s in college category, it ‘s valid to turn out the effectivity of concerted survey. One of the instances was the FLL ( Foreign Language and Literature ) category. The pupils were required to make assignments after they finished the literary plants ( short narrative and novels ) . There were 2 parts included in the assignment: respondent inquiries and blank-fillings. Every category, the instructor would organize groups of 2-3 pupils. One of them would make the presentation, and all the group members would hold to work on the assignments together. The pupil who did the presentation was ever the 1 liked to speak, and could vividly explicate the reply to the inquiries, while the reply should be the combined thoughts of all the group members. The other illustration was besides concerted survey applied in one of the General Psychology category carried out in Plattsburgh College. The professor asked the pupils to make readyings for new category in groups of 4-6 people. All the pupils in a group needed to fix at least one session of the stuff, and one of them would move as the taking function to link the whole presentation. After those categories, several personal interviews have been held of those who conducted the activities. They held positive positions about that. One of the pupils from FLL category said that it was fun for they could easy acquire the elaborate information of a novel when they were mentioned by their schoolmates. The cognition became more impressive and they could utilize to expose their point of position freely and creatively. â€Å" I love that category. † she said. This was precisely what instructor and the category wanted. The other pupil from GP category said he normally sat mutely in some ot her categories, merely taking notes. But in GP category, he had to fix his ain address good and went up to the phase. â€Å" Though I do n't frequently speak, I will merely travel at that place and state what I have done, and so I remember all the stuffs refering with our lessons. † He besides said this. It can be seen from these two illustrations that when pupils ‘ have experienced, they will happen involvements in making things. They will analyze better and more expeditiously. Dialectic Materialism has the theory that interaction is one of the ways human existences exist. School ‘s being a societal group, enables interactions and societal communications between instructor and pupils. This besides provides accounts for the betterment of pupils ‘ geting cognition in the co-op survey atmosphere, for experiences provided by schoolmates are easy to be understood, and the activities pupils have played will picture the significance of societal functions. However, pupils will develop a sense of societal value, undertaking consciousness, cooperation consciousness, and their societal duties every bit good as team-work spirit. Based on the recognition that pupils should be the chief function, concerted survey has created the opportunity to interact between pupils, and distin guished the functions of â€Å" steering † and â€Å" playing † between instructors and pupils. Therefore, pupils can hold the chances and clip to interchange their thoughts, prosecuting betterment together. More significantly, during the procedure, the subjectiveness of pupils is to the full reflected, their desire for cognition, enthusiasm will be aroused and happy and effectual acquisition will be achieved.4.2 Teamwork illustrations in high school in China ( Particular instance in Deyang Foreign Language School )Teaching pattern in Deyang Foreign Language School: Based on the concerted acquisition research and pattern, the writer has carried out a instruction pattern in 2 categories of high section in Deyang Foreign Language School, taking to research the effectivity of concerted survey ‘s increasing pupil schoolroom engagement and their efficiency of pupil acquisition in the procedure of instruction. Method: instance survey Basic information of topics: Class 7 is a scientific discipline category, with 21 male childs and 23 misss, in-between rank in comprehensive abilities. Class 5 is an art category, with 10 male childs and 29 misss, in-between rank in comprehensive capablenesss. The demands of English course of study for both categories are the same. Their English trials classs are of small difference. Content: Warming Up and Speaking in Unit 5 Textbook: Senior English for China Student ‘s Book 2A Step1: grouping For category 7: There were all together three chief squads grouped harmonizing to pupils ‘ personalities. Group 1, active pupils ( chatty, and really rather ) Group2, less chatty, over reserved pupils Group3, reserved pupil ( will take portion in the category when needed ) For category 5: three groups every bit good, assigned harmonizing to their seats. Step2: delegate the undertakings Part one: Questions based on the text edition, page 33. a. Give images that they are interested in B. Give information about each portion of UK on different facets. Part two: pupils get to cognize each other and administer the assignments by themselves Step3: the procedure of the category groups treatment pull off the information they have collected presentation Step4: rating ( 5 mark for each ) 1. Students were valued as a whole group. 2. Presentations should be displayed vividly, including every 1s ‘ message, reflecting their grouping manner, which consisted of balanced distribution of work, mediate trust. 3. Accuracy of cognition is besides valued. Step5: attesting the efficiency of larning. All the pupils are asked to complete the pre-reading undertakings on the text edition.4.2.1 ConsequencesFor category 7 ( chart 4.1 ) Group Accuracy of cognition presentation Overall entire Group 1 4 4 4 12 Group 2 4 3 3 10 Group 3 5 4 4 13 For category 5 ( chart 4.2 ) Group Accuracy of cognition presentation Overall entire Group 1 4 3 3 10 Group 2 3 2 3 8 Group 3 3 2 2 74.2.2 Discussion and defects4.2.2.1 Main findingsGroup presentations ‘ description of Class 7: Group one, which is made of chatty individuals and really quiet pupils, chatty pupils of course had really flexible heads and they took the occupation of presentations, while others had shared information collected by them and supported their teammates. Group two, pupils were less chatty and over reserved. They tended to keep back when promoted to stand on the phase and give a presentation stand foring their group, which made a loss of their tonss of â€Å" presentation † . Group 3 had the highest mark. During the procedure of instruction, the writer has found that in Class 7, pupils in each group made readyings intricately. They distributed the assignments harmonizing to everyone ‘s abilities and advantages, for some of them were good at computing machines, which was of import for information collection, and some had better unwritten English, which could do the presentation clear to be understand. The ground laid much in their personality, for these decently reserved pupils normally stand out when they were needed, and ever had a clear hint of what to make and what to state. In this group, they had given the information really accurate and presented steadily. The writer had consumed that to accomplish the ultimate end that the group to acquire the best mark, the pupils needed cooperate with each other good. During the procedure, obeisance and via media were needed but more significantly, the support towards others. What had come out as a consequence was after each presentatio n, other group members had given a first yet loud hand clapping to their teammate, and they had invariably complete the spouses ‘ addresss on the phases by supplying more addendum. Group presentations ‘ description of Class 5: Group 1 happened to dwell of several pupils who were better at English. Group 3 was of pupils with ordinary abilities, and the 2nd group owned several backward pupils, whose survey consequences were below norm. And group 2 had comparatively higher mark in the â€Å" overall column † because when it was their bend to make the presentation, they seemed active. Though non much information required was provided, these pupils were to the full take parting. And the pupils in the other mean group were merely every bit backdown as what some pupils had seemed in category. The research consequence was little different. Get downing from free grouping, which they did harmonizing to their seating agreement, the pupils tended to collaborate with friends or closed place schoolmates. However, this might be influenced by the pupils ‘ gender part, intending more male childs preferred speaking while misss were more reserved. Necessity of proper grouping: these illustrations prove that in order to ease concerted acquisition, proper schoolroom grouping and organisation will play a important function. Their groups turned out to be three groups every bit good. However, there are more jobs necessary to be discussed. First, in category 5, due to the random assignment, pupils had lost a sense of common benefits, which is one of the basic elements, less effectual assignment distributions were made, which had lead to pupils to simply wait for replies from others or they ended up mixing information for deficiency of group dialogue and full readying. Second, they tended to get away from duties, for depending on pupils who were comparatively better at speaking, while the others were merely taking notes or listening. But there were some active pupils demanded to state their findings as an person. These two issues have affected the effectivity of concerted survey. Through these two instances, the importance of grouping has been signified. The efficiency of acquisition: in category 7, pupils appeared easier to happen the elaborate information and have a better apprehension of the context, for the descriptions given were more accurate and were based on what they had known or mentioned by their schoolmates. In category 5, pupils were less active to reply inquiries and appeared less interested in larning and their answers were little vague and less in measure. From this, we can foretell that after a self-experience of analysing and analyzing stuffs and sharing with others, pupils can hold a comparatively better appreciation of the cognition, which is of import for learning and indispensable to better their efficiency in geting cognition. Flaws of the researchThe writer has consumed the research will throw more visible radiation on concerted survey ‘s effectivity on bettering pupils engagement and on their efficiency in geting cognition, but because of missing informations, pupils ‘ personality analysis appeared rough, which might act upon the grouping. However, concerted acquisition ‘s map of mobilising pupils ‘ enthusiasm has been to the full reflected. But, whether the concerted acquisition can enable pupils to better larning efficiency was non to the full proved. Merely by analyzing the pupils ‘ apprehension of related reading contexts was non sufficient. Harmonizing to the rule of memories, even though the pupils gained a batch of cognition points in the schoolroom, they would shortly be forgotten if there is no effectual ways to be practiced, such as quizzes, in-depth treatments.5. Solve jobsAs to better the low category engagement rate and pupils ‘ efficiency in geting cognition, the writer has advocated using concerted survey into task-based instruction. After analyzing the old surveies and making learning pattern, more suggestions should be made as good. These suggestions are more likely made for instructors.5.1 suggestions on making activities:a. M ore suited and thoughtful activities should be arranged. Guarantee the equality of opportunities for each pupil to take part through the ways varied, as what the writer has done in instruction. Vary the survey signifiers. Take more signifiers like group treatments, group argument, group seeking, group function drama, and if allowed, on-line seminar, since English is a unrecorded linguistic communication category. The more challenging the subject is, the more passionate the pupils will be and ne'er do it a load for pupils. Scholars have proposed three methods of grouping: homogenous grouping, heterogenous grouping, and the free combination. In homogenous group, pupils frequently ain same characteristics, like in classs, survey ability, and survey action. By combing them, they can happen their involvements in common and better together. While in heterogenous groups, things are face-to-face. It is better for pupils to assist each other every bit good as learn from each other. Free grouping can excite pupils ‘ passion and enterprise to analyze by grouping them harmonizing to their ain picks and has a strong coherence. The grouping should be depended on learning stuffs, learning conditions, and pupils ‘ existent state of affairss. Teachers should plan the synergistic activities based on existent life alternatively of superficial content which requires no deep thought, contains no profound significance and bears no communicative necessity. Try to assist the pupils to truly take part in the activities from the â€Å" perceptual experience – general – applications, † and develop their abilities in identify jobs and work outing jobs. After a group work, it is helpful that the instructor provide the feedback and rating to the survey, which will corroborate group members ‘ sense of equal importance to the group, give the encouragement and support.5.2 Suggestions on interactions with pupils:a. To finish a assortment of mission activities, aid to excite pupils ‘ involvement in larning. B. In the procedure of finishing the undertaking, instructors should unite the linguistic communication cognition and linguistic communication accomplishments together, assisting to develop the students of linguistic communication proficiency. c. To assist pupils to actively take part in linguistic communication communicating activities, instructors should animate their imaginativeness and originative thought. Students should play the chief function. d. In activities to larn cognition, developing interpersonal communicating, believing, decision-making and adaptability, is contributing to overall development of pupils. e. In the task-based instruction activities, being inspired by their instructors, each pupil has to believe independently and active engagement chances, maintain the motive to larn, and develop good survey wonts. Teachers should esteem the positions of pupils to construct a wide exchange of learning background, create an advanced ambiance, and advance the spirit of â€Å" ask for develop as a whole alternatively of wining separately † . It is besides indispensable for instructors to carry on emotional communicating, to develop pupils ‘ spirit of Humanities and Social Sciences, every bit good as their right sense of competition and societal duty.6. DecisionThe internal value of concerted survey is necessary to be signified. As e ©Ã‚ ¬a†¦Ã‚ ° [ Ma Lan ] ( 2004 ) has stated, concerted survey is non merely a instruction method, but besides an positive attitude of life, demoing people ‘s grasp and willingness of header with others. Concerted survey is non merely a method but besides the content of a survey, from which pupils learn the rules and societal accomplishments to develop. More significantly, concerted survey is non merely about the interactions between instructors and pupils, but besides the portion of resources among them. And under the demands of current course of study, the cognition base of a pupil includes cognition from text edition every bit good as from that of a instructor ‘s in struction experience and the interactions among them. Cooperative larning itself is a sort of profound religious kernel, rich content and extended operational theory of learning engineering scheme. U.S. concerted acquisition experts Jacobs ( 2001 ) one time said, â€Å" the shortest distance to make a end is non needfully a consecutive line † . As for English instruction, it is non to inquire pupil to declaim the English lexicon and learn them the simply signifiers of linguistic communication, but the practical use of English. Uniting with task-based instruction method, concerted survey is effectual to assist pupils to see the joy of acquisition, cultivate a sense of duty by sharing different assignments and larn to give to a end by doing usage of common complement.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Symptoms And Treatment Of The Emergency Room - 1456 Words

Code Status___No Code__ Allergies__Penicillin____________ Temp (C/F Site) Pulse (Site) Respiration Pulse Ox (O2 Sat) Blood Pressure Pain Scale 1-10 98.3 F Orally 92 Radial 26 94% RA 168/98 9 History of Present Illness Including Admission Diagnosis Relevant Physical Assessment Findings (normal abnormal) Relevant Diagnostic Procedures/Results Surgeries (include dates. If not found, state so.) Admission Diagnosis: Patient N.L. was brought into the emergency room (ER) and was admitted to the medical-surgical unit on Tuesday at 1700 complaining of sudden onset of diffuse contraction-like peri-umbilical pain radiating all over her abdomen on and off for an hour after having lunch at home. Patient was a 9/10 on a pain scale with nausea and vomiting x 2. Her admitting diagnosis were small bowel obstruction and systemic inflammatory response with leukocytosis. History of Present Illness: N.L. has history of constipation and fecal impaction several years ago. Patient also has history of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 for 9 years, Hypertension for 15 years, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) for 5 years. Patient has also had laparoscopic appendectomy 5 years ago for erupted appendicitis and total hysterectomy 3 years ago due to uterine fibroids. N.L. smoked half a pack of cigarettes for 20 years and recently cut down to 2 cigarettes per day. N.Ll also drinks alcohol occasionally, approximately 2 drinks per month. Family History: Patient’s youngerShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Policies Regarding Evaluation And Management Of The Ebola Virus Disease1569 Words   |  7 PagesA Coordinated Response: The Effect of Policies Regarding Evaluation and Management of Possible Ebola Patients in the Emergency Department In March 2014, the Ministry of Health in Guinea notified the Africa Regional Office of the World Health Organization of a new outbreak of the Ebola Virus Disease [EVD]. As of December 2, 2014, this recent Ebola outbreak has seen 10,708 confirmed infections and 6,055 deaths, with the hardest hit countries being West African countries of Guinea, Sierra Leone, andRead MoreEmergency Medical Center And Certified Stroke Center1702 Words   |  7 PagesThe facility has 772 beds and maintains one of the busiest emergency rooms in Philadelphia. Einstein’s emergency department treats over 95,000 patients each year, providing cutting edge care to patients with a wide variety of illnesses and injuries. The emergency department utilizes start-of-the-art systems to assist physicians and enhance patient care such as â€Å"digital radiography, and ED-based CT scanner, the Vocera Phone System, emergency bedside ultrasound, automatic patient tracking, and muchRead MorePain Management935 Wor ds   |  4 Pagesthere is an obligation to patients to advocate on there behalf. According to the American Nurses Associations (ANA) position statement on Pain Management and Control of Distressing Symptoms in Dying Patients it’s the nurses obligation to his or her patient to administer effective doses of prescribed medications for symptom control. ANA also states nurses have a moral obligation to advocate on a patients behalf when the pain management regime prescribed is not effective. The textbook tells us thatRead MoreEmergency Medicine and the Ethical Dilemmas1749 Words   |  7 PagesEmergency Medicine and the Ethical Dilemmas Luisa Martin HCA 322 Instructor Thomas December 5, 2010 Picture this scenario: You are working  in the emergency room of a public hospital where the  Ã‚   inflow of patients is higher than the available beds. You are treating an elderly man who is breathless and cyanosed. While you assess whether he has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or heart failure, he becomes drowsy and starts gasping. You quickly intubate him with some difficulty, prolongingRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Stroke865 Words   |  4 Pagestalking about the importance of recognize signs and symptoms of stroke, call immediately for help and go to an emergency room. Professor Reza brings up the definition of stroke and the signs of stroke: impairment of brain functions, decreasing sensations and movement. Depending on the affected area, the symptoms will be different. If stroke affects the motor area, then the motion function is sudden lost. If sensation area is affected, then, the symptoms will be loss of sensitivity. If the area is thatRead MoreAppendicitis1525 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿Many in medicine have found that they love the blood and gore of surgery and dream of someday running an emergency situation in which involves an immediate surgery. Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical abdominal emergency. Delayed treatment increases the incidence of complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the presentation, incidence, and predictors of complications, and histological findings in adult patients with clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. This paper willRead MoreSolving For The Correct Diagnosis878 Words   |  4 PagesLlanas Sr. At that point I got scared and called an ambulance. His son died en-route to the hospital. According to results from an autopsy, Llanas Jr. died of a lacerated left kidney and internal hemorrhage. The suit names Children s Emergency Room physician Dr. Abbie Leigh Smith, Children s Medical Center and UT Southwestern. All have denied gross negligence, said attorney Les Weisbrod, who is representing the family. In Texas, damages to be paid in a malpractice case are capped at $250Read MoreThe Emergency Room Services ( Ed )1680 Words   |  7 PagesGoing to the emergency room is not something most people want to do. However, on occasion it is necessary to utilize the emergency room services (ED). What necessitates that trip is debatable; social norms, prevailing trends, environmental demographics, culture, individual factors, the perception of illness and access to healthcare have all been discussed. It is not this authors intention to determine the root cause, but merely raise awareness that issues exist. Increased Patient Wait Times ResultRead MoreA Brief Note On Collaboration And Teamwork Among Health Care1121 Words   |  5 Pageshealth care system, decrease costs and improve patient satisfaction, while improving general health care worker satisfaction. In this paper I will discuss various health care interdisciplinary relationships, including radiology, working in the emergency room, and working with the pharmaceutical company that market department needs to foster effective collaboration with the development department. Also, I discuss ways to avoid and resolve conflict, how to work as a team and collaborate with other departmentsRead MoreCollaboration And Teamwork Among Health Care1514 Words   |  7 Pagessustaining human medicine and patient care overlap diverse fields. The reality of protecting, improving and providing care to patients in any the health care facility and or emergency room includes an effective relationship with an innovative radiology division (Columbia Un iversity Medical Center. (CUMC), (2015). Routinely, the emergency room works in direct partnership with the radiology, putting patient first in providing care. A patient admitted to the health care facility is typically under the care of

Friday, December 27, 2019

Leadership Styles Transformational Leadership - 1913 Words

When in the workforce the fundamental element of what makes a business function is organization. Organization is what helps things to flow, and consist of leaders who are there to direct the pathway of employees. What is a leader? A leader is an individual who is stable, encouraging to others, empower others, and create visions for other to create a better future. A leader is a role model to the professional environment, can handle stressful situations while being a stable center for people during times of change, and encourage others to do their best. While being a leader is very important, it is even more important to able to change the way people think, act and do things is something greater than being just a leader; this is a leadership style called transformational leadership. Transformational leadership is a style of leadership that an individual is admired by many co-workers, changes how things are done, improves the vision for the future and motivate to the entire work enviro nment to be better as a whole. Fact is that leaders who develop the style of a transformational leader leads to a better organisation performance, and a better job/employee satisfaction. Transformational leadership is based on four components which are the following; idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individual consideration (Bass (1995;1998), Hall et al (2002) and Barbuto (2005); with these four elements nursing leaders will be able shape anShow MoreRelatedLeadership Styles : Transformational Leadership1426 Words   |  6 Pagesprove that transformational leadership styles have a major influence on the employee motivation and organisational culture, hence influence the long term success of the business. A number of key leadership styles, together with the transformational leadership will be discussed and linked to real business-world examples. According to the research, there are three main leadership styles, specifically transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. It has been found that a transformational leadershipRead MoreLeadership Styles : Transformational Leadership1457 Words   |  6 PagesOne leadership style stands out for its potential to advance organizational goals and achievement: Transformational Leadership. Understanding how leadership affects operations and the role it plays in organizations is crucial to success. This manuscript will examine Transformational leadership. It will also give examples of people that have embraced this leadership style. Finally, to help better understand the stance taken the text will explore several views on Transformational Leadership and whyRead MoreLeadership Styles : Transformational Leadership1927 Words   |  8 PagesLeadership comes in many different styles. Depending on the type of mission or goal one has each style of leadership can be helpful or harmful. On e leadership style that has been found to work well in a career setting is transformational leadership (Doody and Doody, 2012). Transformational leaders are described as having a deep set of internal values that they encourage those under them to take part in, in the end the ultimate goal for transformational leader is to help the greater good (Doody andRead MoreLeadership Styles : Transformational Leadership1112 Words   |  5 PagesLeadership Style Leadership is a process by which a person influences the thoughts, attitudes, and behaviors of others (Agard, 2011, p. 330). Leadership models can enable or hinder an organizations success. Additionally, leadership styles impact how effectively organizations reach their goals. When leaders understand their dominate leadership style, they can identify their strengths and weaknesses and gain insights on their abilities, values, and beliefs. In addition, understanding a leadersRead MoreTransformational Leadership Style9215 Words   |  37 PagesInternational Journal of Hospitality Management 28 (2009) 254–262 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect International Journal of Hospitality Management journal homepage: Transformational leadership style, market competition and departmental performance: Evidence from luxury hotels in Australia Anoop Patiar a,*, Lokman Mia b a b Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Grifï ¬ th University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, Brisbane, QldRead MoreLeadership Styles : Transformational Leadership1370 Words   |  6 PagesQUESTION 2 Transformational Leadership To improve motivation of employees it is necessary for the Simbian’s top-management to change their leadership style. Balazs (2002) claimed that for industries, which based on individual’s creativity and team work, such as professional architectural firms, transformational leadership style is crucial for organizations well-being. In 1978 Burns first introduced the theory of transformational leadership and differentiate it with transactional in his researchRead MoreLeadership Styles : Transformational Leadership Style2413 Words   |  10 Pagesthere is a direct correlation between effective leadership and a higher level of emotional intelligence. Management theory tends to differentiate between two distinct leadership styles – transformational and transactional. It is the former that theorists link to a higher levels of emotional intelligence in the managers, as well as higher levels of performance in their subordinates. A transformational leadership style differs from a transactional style in that the latter tends to focus on the use ofRead MoreA Unique Leadership Style And Transformational Leadership1286 Words   |  6 PagesLeadership is the process of motivating others toward completion of a common goal and/or task. Luthans Avolio (2003) also introduced the concept of authentic leadership development, which is one of the many psychological perspectives of leadership. Authentic leadership is often defined as a pattern of transparent and ethical leadership behaviors’ that encourage openness in sharing information needed to make decisions while accepting followers’ input (Bass, 1999). I truly believe deep in my heartRead MoreTransformational And Authoritarian Leadership Style1691 Words   |  7 Pages Transformational or Authoritarian Leadership Style Pamela Walsh Leadership Dr. Maureen Nixon March 9, 2015 Transformational or Authoritarian Leadership Style Over the course of several decades, the depiction of leadership has changed. What was thought to be innovative and participative or transformational tactic to leadership has replaced the classical and autocratic or authoritarian approach. The step forward that not everything old is bad and not everything new is good wasRead MoreLeadership Styles, Leadership, Transformational Leadership And Laissez Faire Leadership1167 Words   |  5 Pagesinspired you to develop your own leadership traits? â€Å"A leader is someone who demonstrates what’s possible† (Mark Yarnell, 2015). There are numerous leadership styles. Each of the numerous leadership styles can be beneficial if utilized in an appropriate means. I have chosen three leaders and their unique leadership styles to discuss in this paper. The unique styles that will be discussed are situational leadership, transformational leadership, and laissez-faire leadership. I will also discuss each